#DeleteFacebook

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#DeleteFacebook Facebook in the Trash
A piece of digital art that symbolizes both the anger towards Facebook and the intent of deletion.[1]

Introduction

In 2018, Facebook and Cambridge Analytica were exposed for having harvested the data of millions of the app’s users without their consent. The data was utilized by Cambridge Analytica to influence the political sphere, particularly to aid Trump’s presidential campaign.[2] The data privacy breach caused the initiation of the #DeleteFacebook campaign with the goal of starting a movement to boycott Facebook. This movement eventually expanded beyond just the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal and led to a larger data privacy movement. Although #DeleteFacebook failed to boycott the company, it increased consumer awareness about a greater data privacy movement that resulted in policy changes within governments and companies.

Data privacy is considered a branch of data security that involves the “proper handling of data,” including areas such as consent, notice, and regulatory obligations.[3]

Data privacy concerns are often concerned with:

  • Whether/How data is shared with third parties
  • How data is legally collected or stored
  • Regulatory restrictions such as GDPR, HIPAA, GLBA, or CCPA [4]

#DeleteFacebook however, has a specific focus on Facebook. The chosen phrase of “Delete Facebook” is significant because of how clear the intention of the movement is through solely the hashtag, a straight-forward call for users to delete their Facebook accounts.

The map below illustrates the states’ populations that were the most affected by Cambridge Analytica. In April of 2018, 87 million Facebook users received a notification that informed them that their data had been compromised. Although California and Texas had the most affected users, Mississippi, West Virginia and Kentucky are the most affected states in terms of percentages with approximately 45% of their citizens’ data being compromised. [5]

#DeleteFacebook Map for Breached Data
A map that illustrates the states’ populations that were the most affected by Cambridge Analytica and the data scandal. [6]

The map below shows the states that used the hashtag the #DeleteFacebook, with the darker colored states showing the highest levels of engagement and use.

#DeleteFacebook Use of Hashtag by State
A map that illustrates how frequently different states’ populations used the hashtag #DeleteFacebook. [7]

Context

Background

In March of 2018, the British company Cambridge Analytica was exposed by the company’s research director and whistleblower, Christopher Wylie. [8] The data scientist accused the company of using the data of almost 90-million Facebook profiles to influence political campaigns such as Brexit and the 2016 Trump campaign. [9] As a result of this major data breach, the Federal Trade Commission started a formal investigation on the possible violation of the privacy protections that Facebook had arranged with the agency in 2011. [10]

In March of 2018, Facebook addressed the FTC agreement potential violation, and the CEO Mark Zuckerberg responded publicly to the scandal by apologizing for Facebook’s lack of action as well as not monitoring Cambridge Analytica closely. [11]

As the situation unfolded, the public reacted to the scandal by creating the hashtag #DeleteFacebook that sought to encourage Facebook users to delete their accounts to protest against the ways Facebook collected and used data.

Political Spectrum

#DeleteFacebook seeks to address Facebook practices on the data produced by its users. This scandal compromised the data of all people alike, regardless of political affiliation. However, the use of this data has primarily benefited Republican campaigns such as Ted Cruz’s and Donald Trump’s. [12]

Timeline

04.02.2010

Open Graph is released as a Facebook platform that allows third-party apps to request data from Facebook users through an app agreement.

[13]

11.12.2015

Cambridge Analytica consulted for Ted Cruz’s presidential campaign to edge out Republican candidates. Facebook pressures Kogan to erase breached data.

[15]

 

06.01.2016

Cambridge Analytica starts to consult for the Trump Campaign, focusing messaging exclusively on swing states and targeting donation requests based on the harvested data.

[16]

17.03.2018

The Observer publishes their exclusive interview with former Cambridge Analytica employees where Wylie exposes the data harvesting scandal.

[17]

20.03.2018

The Federal Trade Commission begins a formal investigation on the possible privacy protection violations between Facebook and the agency in 2011.

[18]

22.03.2018

The hashtag is used almost 90,000 on social media platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, and mostly Twitter.

[19]

25.03.2018

Facebook’s CEO apologizes for the breach of trust, hints at preventative actions, and announces new restrictions on data access for app developers. [20]

 

10.04.2018

Mark Zuckerberg voluntarily testifies in front of Congress about the misuse of users’ data, after massive public pressure from Americans.

[21]

08.04.2020

Open Graph is released as a Facebook platform that allows third-party apps to request data from Facebook users through an app agreement.

[14]

 

Key Actors

Christopher Wylie: #DeleteFacebook was created and popularized after news broke of the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal. Christopher Wylie, therefore, plays an important role in the movement as he was the individual who exposed the scandal to the public. Wylie is a former employee of Cambridge Analytica who became a whistleblower for the scandal by leaking documents that showed how “Cambridge Analytica harvested the data of millions of Facebook users without their consent”. [22] He essentially exposed the companies’ roles in Brexit and President Trump’s campaign, including how the data was used to target people “susceptible to disinformation, racist thinking, and conspiracy theories” for political advertising. [23]

Brian Acton: Brian Acton’s tweet utilizing the #DeleteFacebook hashtag was considered to be a driving force of the movement, helping to push it to its “fever pitch.”[24] Acton is a co-founder of WhatsApp, which is owned by Facebook. [25] As a former ally turning against the company, his tweet stating it was time to delete Facebook demonstrated the severity of the scandal.

Mark Zuckerberg: Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, is the individual on the ‘other side’ of this movement as he is the main person facing all the backlash associated with the data scandal and #DeleteFacebook. Zuckerberg has become the main figure of blame in the scandal as many users believe it was his job to protect their data. Rather than oppose the movement against Facebook, Zuckerberg has actually accepted responsibility for the “breach of trust” between the app and users, and has acknowledged that mistakes were made. [26] In an effort to right Facebook’s wrongs, he claims steps will be taken to ensure policy changes are made to better protect users’ data. [27]

Celebrification: As the movement gained supporters, celebrification occurred. Cher, Will Ferrell, and Jim Carrey are among many of the celebrities from Hollywood that began publishing posts about deleting their Facebook pages. [28] Important tech executives, such as Elon Musk and Steve Wozniak, also announced they were deleting their Facebook accounts. [29]

Organizations

Both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica were at the center of the data scandal that sparked the movement, and are considered the two organizations most heavily involved in the movement. Additionally, the Own Your Data Foundation, started by Brittany Kaiser, former business development director of Cambridge Analytica’s parent company and somewhat of a whistleblower for the scandal, was an organization created to promote digital literacy education. [30] Therefore while Facebook and Cambridge Analytica are relevant due to their data harvesting activities sparking the movement, Own Your Data is a resulting organization that works towards helping individuals protect their data.

Demographics

Unlike many other social movements, #DeleteFacebook is not catered to or created by a specific demographic based on gender, race, or sexual orientation. The Cambridge Analytica data harvesting primarily attempted to find appropriate targets for the Republican campaigns, so the focus was mostly on those who could be persuaded to Republican ideologies. For example, “the 10 states with the highest percentage of users impacted all voted for a Republican candidate in 3 or more of the last 4 elections,” while the 3 states with lowest percentage impact voted Democrat in at least 3 of the last 4 elections. [31]

Although Republicans were the desired targets, millions of Facebook users, in general, were affected by the Cambridge Analytica scandal because their data was still harvested without consent. [32] For this reason, it wasn’t Republicans pioneering the #DeleteFacebook movement, but rather the platform’s users in general, which encompass a wide range of demographics. 

The #DeleteFacebook movement can also be differentiated from many other movements because it was predominantly an online movement against a social media platform. Although some physical protests did exist, such as people congregating outside Facebook’s offices, these physical demonstrations were not a vital part of the movement. Unlike many other popular movements, #DeleteFacebook never orchestrated or put heavy emphasis on large-scale in-person protests to accompany their digital presence. There is a level of irony in how heavily this movement relied on social media platforms, which are potential culprits of the issues the movement attempts to combat, while simultaneously opposing another social media platform.

Social Media Presence

Platforms and Popular Hashtags

Considering #DeleteFacebook is a movement against Facebook, the main social media platform used to share the hashtag was Twitter. The hashtag was popularized on the 20th of March, 2018 in a tweet composed by WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton. [33] The hashtag quickly gained further popularity and was soon used by thousands of users. Other hashtags related to data privacy exist, but #DeleteFacebook is the primary hashtag that encompasses the specific goal of boycotting Facebook.

Important Posts

As mentioned earlier, Brian Acton’s tweet was vital to spurring the movement overall. [34]

#DeleteFacebook Brian Acton Tweet
A tweet by Brian Acton claiming that it’s time to delete Facebook. [35]
#DeleteFacebook became popular enough to attract the attention of celebrities as well. This list includes Elon Musk and Jim Carrey, who have expressed negative opinions towards Facebook in some form regarding the movement. [36]

#DeleteFacebook Jim Carrey Tweet
A tweet by Jim Carrey explaining his anger towards Facebook and pledging to delete his account, urging others to do the same. [37]
#DeleteFacebook Elon Musk Tweet
A tweet by Elon Musk mocking Facebook and stating he will delete Facebook pages related to his business. [38]
Cher somewhat came to the defense of the platform and addressed the good that Facebook has done for her despite ultimately deleting her Facebook account as a form of protest for data privacy. [39]

#DeleteFacebook Cher Tweet
Tweets by Cher acknowledging the good of Facebook, but then ultimately claiming she will delete her account. [40]
The movement clearly reached beyond just the average user and the tech industry as these celebrities shared their opinions on the movement.

Brittany Kaiser also began pushing her own campaign of #OwnYourData, which can be viewed as an extension of #DeleteFacebook. Her hashtag and movement focus more on promoting increased protection of users’ data in general, particularly through literacy education. Below is her very first post for the hashtag. 

#DeleteFacebook OwnYourDataNow account post
A tweet from the official account of the Own Your Data Foundation launching their online presence on Twitter. [41]

Meme vs Cause

As a result of the #DeleteFacebook movement, many Mark Zuckerburg and Facebook memes similar to the ones shown below were curated. Many of these memes highlight user data privacy by implying that Mark Zuckerburg and Facebook are watching you and taking your data without your knowledge. The movement against Facebook ultimately had a substantially large presence online through memes.

#DeleteFacebook sample meme
A meme that circulated online that jokes about Facebook already having all your data and personal information without users offering it to them. [42]
#DeleteFacebook sample meme
A meme that jokes about the irony behind Facebook and Mark Zuckerberg claiming they have respect for users’ privacy by labeling it a prank. [43]

Importance of Social Media

Social media has played an important role in the boycotting of Facebook in a unique way. While most movements have some form of physical protests, the #DeleteFacebook movement was popularized online, with physical protests sparsely happening outside of Facebook offices. This implies that without social media, this movement would likely not have grown or possibly even existed at all. Once again, there is irony in this situation because the movement uses Twitter, a social media platform, to speak towards the removal of a social media platform. Despite a few physical protests, the movement against Facebook reached a wide audience and was able to increase the public’s overall awareness of data privacy issues.

Organic vs Planned Growth

The movement was spurred from a Tweet targeted at Facebook in response to the data breach of millions of Facebook users without their permission, deeming it as a planned act. Therefore, the growth of the hashtag was popularized through planned growth as #DeleteFacebook was created with the intention to result in a collective boycott against the app. However as the hashtag gained popularity, the larger movement for data privacy grew more organically as users became more educated and aware of what was going on with their data without necessarily needing the hashtag itself. 

Analog Antecedents

#DeleteUber: In 2017, the hashtag #DeleteUber was trending on Twitter. The movement was a response to how Uber seemingly intended to profit from a protest against President Trump’s travel ban for certain refugees and immigrants. [44] The public, angered by Uber’s actions, used #DeleteUber on Twitter to promote the deletion of the app from people’s phones. The movement was ultimately successful as hundreds of thousands of consumers stopped using Uber within days of the hashtag campaign launching. [45] There were so many account deletion requests that Uber was “forced to create an ad hoc, automated system” for deleting accounts. [46]

It’s likely that this movement heavily influenced #DeleteFacebook. Not only do the two campaigns have similarly named hashtags, but both were initiated by users condemning the actions the companies had recently taken. Considering #DeleteUber was overall successful, it’s possible that when #DeleteFacebook was launched, it intended to follow in the footsteps of this preceding movement. This may have contributed to the lack of success #DeleteFacebook had in comparison to the movement against Uber. Users involved in #DeleteFacebook may have taken this past movement as an indication that making their hashtag go viral was enough to create the same impact. Trying to replicate the success of #DeleteUber by simply copying its tactics may have led to minimal effort being exerted in #DeleteFacebook, thus warranting less impressive results for app deletion. 

#OwnYourData: Brittany Kaiser, one of the key figures in the Cambridge Analytica data scandal, began the #OwnYourData movement as part of the larger Data Privacy movement, and as a reaction to the event. [47] This movement encourages users to reevaluate how their data is being used through the promotion of digital literacy and targets Facebook specifically as the perpetrator of abusing users’ data without consent. 

Although this movement didn’t precede #DeleteFacebook, there was potential for the two movements to influence one another since they coexisted for a period of time. It’s clear that Kaiser’s #OwnYourData campaign was inspired by #DeleteFacebook and the data scandal in general. Kaiser’s attempted movement essentially failed to have traction, likely due to her own controversies. Kaiser’s initial involvement with the scandal through her employment at Cambridge Analytica’s parent company and her subsequent fleeing to Thailand when exposed has caused some people to be apprehensive towards her. [48] The lack of success of her #OwnYourData hashtag was likely the reason why her movement had minimal impact on #DeleteFacebook. The larger data privacy movement seems to be unconfined to a singular hashtag, therefore even though the general push for data privacy may have positively influenced #DeleteFacebook’s popularity, a sole hashtag such as #OwnYourData probably did not.

Impact of Movement

This movement created a consciousness within governments and consumers that these large companies need regulations on how they use people’s data, and that one should think twice about how personal information is used.

Consumers

The movement did not prompt many users to actually delete the app, as Facebook has cemented itself as an essential platform for our social relations. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center backs up these claims: in the months after the scandal, only a quarter of respondents reported deleting the app altogether, but about half of them made an adjustment to their privacy settings. [49] Users themselves drew anger and confusion, yet the hashtag itself became a meme with notable figures like Elon Musk, who is famed for his mischievous tweets, tweeting it out. In the grand scheme, it highlighted a tragic comedy of society today where consumers are simultaneously paranoid of their data being abused, yet making light of the situation with a comedic hashtag. 

Investors

As the hashtag promoted bad publicity, the scandal impacted investors heavily. Facebook’s stock plunged about 24%, or $134 billion, in a week; it later bounced back within three months. [50] A year after the data breach, the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) completed an investigation and fined the company $5 billion for dishonoring their users’ data privacy. [51] 

Government

The first government to react to the data breach was the European Union, which passed the General Data Protection Regulation in May of 2018 that requires more transparency from companies when it comes to the use of consumers’ personal data. Several companies such as Twitter, Slack, and Instagram sent out emails and notifications to users that they updated their “Terms of Service” or made changes to their “Privacy Policy.” [52] [53]

As of January 1, 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act went into effect, which allows California residents to control and access the information large tech companies use and/or sell. [54] Some companies are overhauling their entire data infrastructure to accommodate this new law whether by Chrome extensions or help centers, to comply with the law and make the information more accessible. 

Mark Zuckerberg himself also makes appearances at Congressional testimonies and the Munich Security Conference. He both explains the actions of the company, and makes pleas for governments to add more regulations on large tech companies. [55]

Critiques of Movement

One critique of the movement was that it was not successful at motivating enough people to act. The hashtag #DeleteFacebook may have been widely used, but critics claim many users never actually took the step to delete Facebook. A survey by investment firm Raymond James found that although approximately 84% of Facebook users were concerned about how the app used their data, about 48% of those surveyed claimed they wouldn’t actually cut back on their usage of the social media network. [56] In 2018 Mark Zuckerberg even commented that he didn’t think they had seen “a meaningful number of people act” on deleting Facebook. [57] The platform’s audience size has not been dramatically affected as the daily active user base in the U.S. and Canada remained at 185 million for four quarters straight despite the #DeleteFacebook movement. [58] This critique stems from the idea that individuals rely so heavily on social networks as resources, such as modern-day versions of a phone book, that it has become difficult to detach from these platforms. [59] Therefore the overall evidence is said to imply that users weren’t actually willing to give up the affordances of Facebook.

Not only was the movement criticized for being ineffective, but critics also claimed #DeleteFacebook focused on taking the wrong action. Some believe that the solution to changing Facebook and data privacy is not to simply delete accounts, but rather to “push for greater democratic control over the platform.” [60] Critics claim that the movement is “self-defeating” due to the fact that deleting accounts doesn’t necessarily promote change in the way other methods could more effectively encourage positive growth on the platform.

Extending beyond just #DeleteFacebook and to the greater movement for data privacy, some critics point out potential disadvantages to companies having less access to data. Firstly, increased data privacy restrictions place greater burdens on businesses. These burdens might translate into increased costs for the business, which may ultimately be transferred to consumers or users as businesses need to find a way to remain profitable. Additionally, there is an argument that claims less data means lower quality. [61] The fewer data companies such as Facebook have access to, the less tailored apps and services will be to the needs of specific users. Ultimately, increased data privacy is argued to possibly lead to increased costs and less efficiency.

Conclusion

#DeleteFacebook was most popular and earnest during the unfolding of the Cambridge Analytica scandal. However, it eventually became a gimmick as memes emerged surrounding the issue, and only resurfaces on social media with much less vigor whenever Facebook falls into another bad press day, such as word leaking of Zuckerberg’s private meetings with conservative leaders. [62]

Ultimately, data shows that the movement didn’t truly compel users to delete the app, or even adjust their privacy settings. Perhaps the decline in seriousness and the advent of “Zuckerberg is watching you” memes helped users forget what the hashtag was all about. Thankfully, governments and other companies decided to reassure the people and themselves that no other organization could participate in “surveillance capitalism” of this magnitude, between the California Consumer Privacy Act and Privacy Policy notifications. 

In the grand scheme of the Data Privacy movement, this hashtag provided a rude and necessary wakeup call. In our society, it has pointed out the irony of people simply expressing their anger about one social media site on another, even warranting “slacktivism” claims. As an often essential site that connects us to one another, it’s understandably challenging to let go of Facebook; although we didn’t take #DeleteFacebook literally, it made us think twice about where our data is being used.

 

Author Biographies

Stephen Carrillo

Stephen is a junior transfer-student studying business administration at UC Berkeley. He grew up in México, where Facebook is the most famous social media platform, and where there is still a lack of public policy that restricts the use of data harvested from users in México. Stephen was interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the use of big data and its potential use for politics so that he can apply that knowledge to Mexican public policy. 

Jules Erving

Jules is a 3rd year Sociology major at UC Berkeley. His interest in sociology led him to become more interested in the relationship between social media and society, particularly social movements. Therefore he wanted to better understand how the online movement against Facebook evolved as a result of the data privacy scandal.

Michelle Boulos

Michelle is a 2nd year Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) student at UC Berkeley. Interested in the intersection of society and technology, she is curious how big tech companies like Facebook play a role in our societies and governments and hopes to translate these themes and warnings into tech policy. With this research, she has enjoyed feeding into her paranoia of big data, but now with a more informed, nuanced argument. 

Natalie Kudenholdt 

Natalie is a 3rd year student at UC Berkeley currently pursuing degrees in Business Administration and Economics. Growing up internationally, Facebook had always been a vital tool for her to stay connected to friends and family. After spending time on social media and utilizing platforms like Facebook, Natalie was interested in diving deeper into the data privacy aspect of these commonly used apps.

Sources

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[14] Meredith, Sam. “Facebook-Cambridge Analytica: A Timeline of the Data Hijacking Scandal.” CNBC, 2020 CNBC LLC, 10 Apr. 2018, www.cnbc.com/2018/04/10/facebook-cambridge-analytica-a-timeline-of-the-data-hijacking-scandal.html.

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[20] Meredith, Sam. “Facebook-Cambridge Analytica: A Timeline of the Data Hijacking Scandal.” CNBC, 2020 CNBC LLC, 10 Apr. 2018, www.cnbc.com/2018/04/10/facebook-cambridge-analytica-a-timeline-of-the-data-hijacking-scandal.html.

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[22] Chan, Rosalie. “The Cambridge Analytica Whistleblower Explains How the Firm Used Facebook Data to Sway Elections.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 5 Oct. 2019, www.businessinsider.com/cambridge-analytica-whistleblower-christopher-wylie-facebook-data-2019-10.

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[24]  Gilbert, Ben. “The #DeleteFacebook Movement Has Reached a Fever Pitch, as Former Facebook Insiders Turn on the Company.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 21 Mar. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/deletefacebook-facebook-movement-2018-3

[25]  Gilbert, Ben. “The #DeleteFacebook Movement Has Reached a Fever Pitch, as Former Facebook Insiders Turn on the Company.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 21 Mar. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/deletefacebook-facebook-movement-2018-3

[26]  Wong, Julia Carrie. “Mark Zuckerberg Apologises for Facebook’s ‘Mistakes’ over Cambridge Analytica.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Mar. 2018, www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica.

[27]  Wong, Julia Carrie. “Mark Zuckerberg Apologises for Facebook’s ‘Mistakes’ over Cambridge Analytica.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Mar. 2018, www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica.

[28]  Leskin, Paige. “Here Are All the Celebrities Who Have Said They’re Quitting Facebook after Its Very Scandalous Year.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 26 Dec. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/facebook-celebrities-deleting-accounts-2018-12.

[29]  Leskin, Paige. “Here Are All the Celebrities Who Have Said They’re Quitting Facebook after Its Very Scandalous Year.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 26 Dec. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/facebook-celebrities-deleting-accounts-2018-12.

[30] Murdock, Jason. “Who Is Brittany Kaiser? Cambridge Analytica Whistleblower Teases New Revelations.” Newsweek, 17 Apr. 2018, www.newsweek.com/who-brittany-kaiser-ex-cambridge-analytica-director-warns-facebook-leak-much-889609.

[31]  Bhardwaj, Prachi. “Here’s a State-by-State Breakdown of Facebook Users Impacted by the Cambridge Analytica Scandal.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 16 June 2018, www.businessinsider.com/facebook-cambridge-analytica-affected-us-states-graphic-2018-6.

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[33]  Gilbert, Ben. “The #DeleteFacebook Movement Has Reached a Fever Pitch, as Former Facebook Insiders Turn on the Company.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 21 Mar. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/deletefacebook-facebook-movement-2018-3.

[34]  Leskin, Paige. “Here Are All the Celebrities Who Have Said They’re Quitting Facebook after Its Very Scandalous Year.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 26 Dec. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/facebook-celebrities-deleting-accounts-2018-12.

[35]  Acton, Brian. “It is time. #deletefacebookTwitter, Twitter 20 Mar. 2018, https://twitter.com/brianacton/status/976231995846963201.

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[37]  Careey, Jim. “I’m dumping my @facebook stock and deleting my page because @facebook profited from Russian interference in our elections and they’re still not doing enough to stop it. I encourage all other investors who care about our future to do the same. #unfriendfacebook” Twitter, Twitter 6 Feb. 2018, https://twitter.com/JimCarrey/status/960953156262744065

[38]  Musk, Elon. “I didn’t realize there was one. Will do.” Twitter, Twitter 23 Mar. 2018, https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/977211923719598086

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[40]  Cher. “2day I did something VERY HARD 4 me. Facebook has helped me with my Charity, & there are amazing young Ppl there. I have a special friend (Lauren) who I Respect & Admire, but today I deleted my Facebook account. I Love My [emoji][emoji]. I Believe….There are Things MORE “IMPORTANT” THAN [emoji][emoji]”, Twitter, Twitter 20 Mar. 2018,  https://twitter.com/cher/status/976280074583359489

[41]  @OwnYourDataNow. “Britanny Kaiser, Cambridge Analytica whistleblower, is calling on Facebook to change its terms of service – so that we each own our personal data.Tell Mark Zuckerburg: I want to own my data. Sign and share our petition” Twitter, Twitter 30 Mar. 2018,  https://twitter.com/OwnYourDataNow/status/979768561991331841

[42] “Facebook Now Hiring.” Imgflip, imgflip.com/i/3isqtt.

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[49]  Perrin, Andrew. “Americans Are Changing Their Relationship with Facebook.” Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, 5 Sept. 2018, www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/09/05/americans-are-changing-their-relationship-with-facebook/.

[50]  Mirhaydari, Anthony. “Facebook Stock Recovers All $134B Lost after Cambridge Analytica Data Scandal.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 10 May 2018, www.cbsnews.com/news/facebook-stock-price-recovers-all-134-billion-lost-in-after-cambridge-analytica-datascandal/.

[51]  Davies, Rob, and Dominic Rushe. “Facebook to Pay $5bn Fine as Regulator Settles Cambridge Analytica Complaint.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 24 July 2019, www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jul/24/facebook-to-pay-5bn-fine-as-regulator-files-cambridge-analytica-complaint.

[52]  Holmes, Aaron. “Here’s Why Facebook, Google, and Every Other Major Tech Company Are Updating Their Privacy Policy in Time for 2020, and What It Means for You.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 1 Jan. 2020, www.businessinsider.com/why-tech-companies-new-privacy-policy-2020-california-2019-12.

[53]  Finley-Moise, Tulie. “Why Is Everyone Updating Their Privacy Policy (What to Look For)?” Why Is Everyone Updating Their Privacy Policy (What to Look For)?, 29 June 2019, store.hp.com/us/en/tech-takes/updating-privacy-policy.

[54]  Holmes, Aaron. “Here’s Why Facebook, Google, and Every Other Major Tech Company Are Updating Their Privacy Policy in Time for 2020, and What It Means for You.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 1 Jan. 2020, www.businessinsider.com/why-tech-companies-new-privacy-policy-2020-california-2019-12.

[55]  Horowitz, Julia. “Mark Zuckerberg Comes to Europe and Asks for More Regulation.” CNN, Cable News Network, 19 Feb. 2020, www.cnn.com/2020/02/17/business/mark-zuckerberg-europe/index.html.

[56]  Guynn, Jessica. “Delete Facebook? It’s a Lot More Complicated than That.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 29 Mar. 2018, www.usatoday.com/story/tech/news/2018/03/28/people-really-deleting-their-facebook-accounts-its-complicated/464109002/.

[57]  Guynn, Jessica. “Delete Facebook? It’s a Lot More Complicated than That.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 29 Mar. 2018, www.usatoday.com/story/tech/news/2018/03/28/people-really-deleting-their-facebook-accounts-its-complicated/464109002/.

[58]  Molla, Rani. “More than a Quarter of Americans Say They’ve Deleted the Facebook App from Their Phones.” Vox, Vox, 5 Sept. 2018, www.vox.com/2018/9/5/17824116/delete-facebook-mark-zuckerberg-social-media-break-time-well-spent.

[59]  Guynn, Jessica. “Delete Facebook? It’s a Lot More Complicated than That.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 29 Mar. 2018, www.usatoday.com/story/tech/news/2018/03/28/people-really-deleting-their-facebook-accounts-its-complicated/464109002/.

[60]  Daub, Courtney. “Penn Prof and Grad Student Criticize #DeleteFacebook Movement, Advocate for Social Media.” The Daily Pennsylvanian, The Daily Pennsylvanian, 8 Apr. 2018, www.thedp.com/article/2018/04/upenn-penn-philadelphia-facebook-professor-annenberg-mark-zuckerberg-cambridge-analytica.

[61]  Yaraghi, Niam. “A Case against the General Data Protection Regulation.” Brookings, Brookings, 11 June 2018, www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2018/06/11/a-case-against-the-general-data-protection-regulation/.

[62]  Lemieux, Melissa. “#DeleteFacebook Trends after Report That Mark Zuckerberg Held Secretive Meetings with Conservative Influencers.” Newsweek, Newsweek, 14 Oct. 2019, www.newsweek.com/deletefacebook-trends-after-report-that-mark-zuckerberg-held-secretive-meetings-conservative-1465165.

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