#WhoMadeMyClothes

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#WhoMadeMyClothes Rana Plaza, fast fashion, garment factory, garment industry
Site of the Rana Plaza garment factory collapse. Photo Credit: Munir Uz Zaman/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images [1]

Introduction

On Wednesday, April 24th, 2013, an eight-story commercial building collapsed in the Dhaka district in Bangladesh. Referred to as the Rana Plaza garment factory collapse, the accident killed 1,134 garment workers and injured an additional 2,500, making it the deadliest garment-factory disaster in history.[2] Motivated by the tragedy, former fashion designers and founders of Fashion Revolution Orsola de Castro and Carry Somers set out to create a movement that would shed light on the fashion industry’s supply chain and urge people to hold the industry accountable.[3] The #WhoMadeMyClothes hashtag was launched in 2014 and became the number 1 global trend on Twitter. It has received over 156 million impressions online to date.[4] They asked an important question through the hashtag #WhoMadeMyClothes because they wanted consumers to become aware of the brands that they purchase from as well as support brands that do not enslave or endanger workers, have fair pay, and conserve the environment. Since the start of the movement, the founding company Fashion Revolution continues to hold a Fashion Revolution week each year to mark the anniversary of the Rana Plaza disaster and continues to spread awareness surrounding the issue.[5] The movement utilized social media to provide a way to inform people of the injustice in the fashion industry and encourage people to be more cognizant of what they wear. While there were tangible changes in the legislation regarding supply chains and garment industry worker pay, the movement failed to spark a monumental shift in how the fashion industry runs seeing that companies continue to participate in fast fashion.

Name of Movement

The #WhoMadeMyClothes movement was created to inspire consumers to make a change in the fashion industry by holding companies accountable and increasing supply chain transparency. It aligns with people’s current attitudes towards a sustainable future and increased individual activism. By getting consumers to ask the question of where their clothes are produced, it encourages people to take part in the movement and spend a little more time thinking about their own choices in the fashion industry. It also allowed garment workers to contribute to the movement by responding with #IMadeYourClothes, opening up the conversation to both sides of the industry.[6]

The #WhoMadeMyClothes movement addresses a wide range of social issues including the trend towards sustainable fashion and fashion activism, the ethics of supply chains, the issue of fast fashion, human and worker’s rights, and the environmental impact of the fashion industry.

Key Terms

Fast fashion — the concept of producing inexpensive clothing for mass-market retailers to create fashion trends quickly, cheaply, and make them readily available to consumers

Garment factory — a clothing manufacturer

Fashion activism — using fashion to create social change

Child labor — illegally or inhumanely using children in business or industry

Demographics

 

#WhoMadeMyClothes demographics, England, United States
The top countries are shown in green. [7]
The movement began in England in response to the Bangladesh tragedy and has spread to countries across the globe over the years and through the use of social media. #WhoMadeMyClothes now boasts activists in 84 countries on 6 different continents. On Twitter, 31.82% of the tweets with #WhoMadeMyClothes were posted by users from the United Kingdom. The top 5 countries with the highest search activity and Twitter posts for #WhoMadeMyClothes were the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Canada, and France.[8]

#WhoMadeMyClothes languages, English
English is the most common language used in the #WhoMadeMyClothes tweets. [9]
The movement is more active in Europe and North America and mostly involves young adults who are more aware of the issue of sustainable and responsible fashion. In terms of gender, female audiences tend to be more active in promoting the movement.[10]

Political Affiliation

#WhoMadeMyClothes has little to almost no political affiliation. However, in Bangladesh, the issue of cheap labor for the garment workers and the lack of safety regulations for the industry are highly political since cheap labor accounts for the majority of the country’s economy. In 2015, apparel exports accounted for 83% of Bangladesh’s total exports.[11]

#WhoMadeMyClothes cheap labor, Bangladesh
[12]

Key Images

#WhoMadeMyClothes poster, fashion, clothing, garment industry
Poster used for the #WhoMadeMyClothes movement. [13]
#WhoMadeMyClothes poster, fashion, clothing, garment industry
Poster used by garment workers for the #WhoMadeMyClothes movement. [14]
These logos were used in social media posts, at protests, and worn on merchandise. People posed with signs on Instagram and Twitter to either ask the question of “Who made my clothes?” or answer with “I made your clothes.”

#WhoMadeMyClothes Rana Plaza, garment workers, garment industry
Photo by Andrew Biraj/Reuters [15]
Relatives lined up outside the site of the Rana Plaza factory collapse displaying photos of their family members and friends. They continued to show up as the death toll rose to over 1,000.[16]

#WhoMadeMyClothes fashion, protest, strike, garment industry
Protesters took to the streets in Berlin to raise awareness for the movement. [17]
People took to the streets to support the Fashion Revolution and protest working conditions and the fast fashion industry.[18]

Context

Timeline

23.04.2013

On Wednesday, 24 April 2013, an eight-story commercial building in Dhaka called the Rana Plaza collapsed. 1,134 people died and approximately 2,500  people were injured. It is considered the deadliest structural failure accident in modern human history and the deadliest garment-factory disaster in history.

27.04.2013

Following the collapse of the Rana Plaza, thousands of garment workers went to the streets of Dhaka to protest. Many of the protesters demanded the death penalty for Sohel Rana, the owner of the building, as well as the owners of the garment factories on the upper floors. More than 150 vehicles were damaged, and protesters burned two factories.

15.05.2013

After the Rana Plaza tragedy, the IndustriALL Global Union and the UNI Global Union in alliance with leading NGOs decided to create an accord promoting fashion companies to make efforts to ensure the safety and well-being of fashion workers. Since 2013, the accord has been signed by more than 200 companies from over 20 countries.

01.06.2013

Fashion Revolution is a non-profit global movement with teams in over 100 countries around the world campaigning for transparency and change in the fashion industry. Together with the organization, Orsola de Castro and Carry Somers started the #WhoMadeMyClothes campaign through Twitter to bring awareness to the general public. 

01.01.2014

After a series of protests from garment workers and the critics from the international community, the government of Bangladesh decided to create a three-way negotiation between the labor union, government, and the factory owners to negotiate the raise in garment worker’s wage. Ultimately, on November 24, 2013, the government decided to increase the minimum monthly wage from 3,000 Taka ($38) to 5,300 Taka ($68), effective by January 1, 2014.

29.05.2015

On May 29th, 2015, True Cost, a documentary directed by Andrew Morgan and produced by Michael Ross was released. The documentary exposed the true working conditions at various cheap garment factories around the world, including the one in Bangladesh. It discusses various aspects of the garment industry, starting from the production; how the workers are faced with inhumane working conditions, to the aftereffects; pollution and environmental damages caused by the unsustainable manufacturing processes. The movie played a significant role in spreading awareness of the importance of sustainable and ethical fashion.

01.06.2018

Following the expiration of the Building and Safety Accord signed in 2013, over 101 brands gather to sign the Transition Accord to ensure that the progress made over the past 5 years will still be maintained in the future. The 2018 agreement currently covers more than 1,200 factories and at least 2 million workers.

01.12.2018

After long negotiations between the worker unions, factory owners, and the government, the government decided to increase the salary of garment workers by 51% to $95 per month.

13.01.2019

Although the government increased the wage by 51%, the workers deemed the salary still too low to cover their living expenses. The new wage fell short to the demanded monthly wage of $189 proposed by the workers. As a result, workers initiated another protest with over 5000 participants, causing 52 factories across Dhaka to shut down.

08.05.2019

 

 

Following the expiration of the Bangladesh Accord, European fashion brands who purchased readymade garments from Bangladesh agreed to hand over the responsibility to oversee worker’s safety to the Bangladesh government with its newly made organization called the Readymade Sustainability Council (RSC). The RSC is established by the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) to ensure a complete and independent national compliance monitoring system in Bangladesh. It will be governed by BGMEA, Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA), brands and workers’ representatives. However, fear began to spread amongst garment workers as they feared that the situation would revert to the conditions before the Rana Plaza incident without the supervision of the international community.

Key Actors

People

Carry Somers

#WhoMadeMyClothes, Carry Somers, fashion, designer, garment industry
[19]
Carry Somers was inspired to act after the Rana Plaza factory collapse in Bangladesh in 2013 and founded Fashion Revolution. For the previous 20 years, Carry’s fashion brand Pachacuti had pioneered radical supply chain transparency, mapping the GPS coordinates of each stage of the production process, from the community plantations where the straw grows to each Panama hat weaver’s house. [20]

Orsola de Castro

#WhoMadeMyClothes Orsola de Castro, fashion, designer, garment industry
[21]
Orsola de Castro is an internationally recognized opinion leader in the sustainable fashion industry. Her career started as a designer with the pioneering upcycling label From Somewhere, which she launched in 1997 until 2014. Along with Carry Sommers, she co-founded Fashion Revolution and started the #WhoMadeMyClothes movement. [22]

Emma Watson

#WhoMadeMyClothes Emma Watson, Twitter, Rana Plaza, garment industry
[23]
Emma Watson is one of the main public figures who promoted #WhoMadeMyClothes through social media platforms to bring awareness of the issue to the general public.

Organizations

Fashion Revolution

#WhoMadeMyClothes, fashion, clothing, garment industry
[24]
Fashion Revolution is a non-profit global movement with teams in over 84 countries around the world. Fashion Revolution campaigns for systemic reform of the fashion industry with a focus on the need for greater transparency in the fashion supply chain. The organization was founded in 2013 in response to the Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh by Carry Somers and Orsola de Castro. For the previous 20 years, Somers’s fashion brand Pachacuti had pioneered radical supply chain transparency and de Castro had launched and run the pioneering upcycling label From Somewhere from 1997 until 2014.[25] Fashion Revolution was designed as a platform for academics, designers, writers, retailers, and business leaders to encourage people to take action in the fashion industry. The organization is funded by private foundations, institutional grants, commercial organizations, and donations from individuals.[26]

Somers and de Castro launched the #WhoMadeMyClothes hashtag in 2013.[27] The activity of Fashion Revolution and #WhoMadeMyClothes are inseparable. #WhoMadeMyClothes is one of Fashion Revolution’s primary channels to spread awareness about the issue of the unethical fashion manufacturing process.

IndustriALL Global Union

#WhoMadeMyClothes industrial, fashion
[28]
IndustriALL Global Union is a global union federation, founded in Copenhagen on June 19th, 2012. The federation represents more than 50 million working people in more than 140 countries, working across supply chains in the mining, energy and manufacturing sectors.[29]

After the Rana Plaza incident in 2013, IndustriALL Global Union along with the UNI Global Union and several other NGOs stepped in to fight for labor rights and industry regulation reforms in Bangladesh. The organization played a vital role in establishing the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh, the accord which requires fashion companies to make efforts to ensure the safety and well-being of fashion workers.[30] After the expiration of the accord, IndustriAll Global Union also proposed a transition accord in 2018, called the 2018 Transition Accord to continue the progress and changes brought by the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh.[31]

International Labour Organization

#WhoMadeMyClothes logo, labor
[32]
The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency that works to promote social justice and set international labor standards. Their mission is to improve working conditions for labor workers around the world.[33] Both the International Labour Organization and Fashion Revolution are working to improve worker’s lives by promoting worker rights, a safe work environment, and proper compensation for labor workers in the garment industry. Through its social media accounts (mainly Twitter), the International Labour Organization has been actively promoting #WhoMadeMyClothes to spread awareness on the issue of cheap labor in the fashion industry to people across the world.

#WhoMadeMyClothes Twitter, ILO, 1919
The International Labour Organization supports the movement on Twitter. [34]

Social Media Presence

The company Fashion Revolution created the #WhoMadeOurClothes movement to spread awareness for the tragedy that happened at Rana Plaza. Their first media outreach was ignited in Berlin in 2015 when Fashion Revolution placed an interactive photo booth promoting a bargain of “T-shirts for 2 Euros.” As people went up to the booth to insert their coins, a video automatically played displaying who was responsible for making the T-shirt and the history of cheap/fast fashion. At the end of every clip, the photo booth proceeded to ask whether they would still like to buy the T-shirt for 2 Euros or donate the money instead. Everyone who watched donated. This experiment was posted on Fashion Revolution’s Youtube channel, reaching 7 million views, and was the catalyst for the #WhoMadeOurClothes movement.[35] They proceeded to start campaigns through social media platforms including Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. In 2016, they reached 129 million people through social media campaigns and activities.[36] Fashion Revolution utilized Instagram by posting photos that challenged users to demand answers from fashion companies like Zara and H&M by using their hashtag on social media and directly emailing fast fashion companies.

#WhoMadeMyClothes graph, impact
[37]

Popular Hashtags

#WhoMadeMyClothes

The first and main hashtag that has been used in the social media movement is #WhoMadeMyClothes. This hashtag was created the first year Fashion Revolution was founded (2013) in order to spread awareness for a fairer, safer and more transparent fashion industry.[38] In April 2018, this hashtag brought 720 million impressions to the movement which was a 35% increase from the previous year. There were 173K posts with the tag #WhoMadeOurClothes in 2018 with a reach of 275 million.[39]

#WhoMadeMyClothes graph, fashion, 2018
[40]
#IMadeYourClothes

In response to #WhoMadeOurClothes, brands and retailers started to respond to the movement with the hashtag #IMadeYourClothes.[41] #IMadeYourClothes was also tagged in many posts representing the harsh working conditions of many workers. This hashtag was first presented in 2016 and was able to reach 3500 producer voices within the first year.

#WhoMadeMyClothes workers, poster, fashion, garment industry
[42]
#HaulAlternative

In 2016, Fashion Revolution made another hashtag to spread awareness of their social movement named #HaulAlternative. #HaulAlternative was mainly targeted towards youtube watchers and creators to post a video of refreshing their current wardrobes instead of buying new clothes. This was inspired by traditional fashion hauls where individuals buy clothes and show off their new pieces. Instead, this hashtag started a conversation around why reusing and refreshing current pieces is better. This hashtag resulted in 3.11 million views of Fashion Revolution in 2016. #HaulAlternative project continued to grow throughout the years and in 2018 Kristen Leo’s Thrift Store Haul was viewed by 32,000 people and inspired over 70 high profile vloggers around the world to make their own videos.[43]

#FashionRevolutionWeek

#FashionRevolutionWeek was one of the first hashtags used during Fashion Revolution week during April 23-29 (anniversary of Rana Plaza Collapse).

#WhoMadeMyClothes Twitter, Fashion Revolution
[44]
#InsideOut

#WhoMadeMyClothes, clothing, fashion, garment industry
A participant in the movement shows off a photo wearing a shirt inside out to promote the hashtag on Instagram. [45]
6 months after the first Fashion Revolution day, more and more consumers started to question who was making their clothes. With that passion, a hashtag, #InsideOut, was born. #InsideOut became a #1 global trend on the social media platform, Twitter. Many celebrities like Christy Turlington, Livia Firth and Amber Valletta went #InsideOut and posted on their social media platforms. People were prompted to wear their clothes inside out and post on their social media with the hashtag. This action was done in order to flash the tag of every piece of clothing, revealing where the country associated with the piece of clothing was made.[46] In addition, British Vogue ran an #InsideOut street style gallery on April 25th.

Memes

#WhoMadeMyClothes Twitter, fashion
[47]
#WhoMadeMyClothes
[48]
#WhoMadeMyClothes
[49]
Three different posts on Fashion Revolution’s Instagram and Twitter.

Analysis

Social Media has played a vital role in the #WhoMadeMyClothes movement. The hashtag sparked consumer’s curiosity about the humanitarian and global aspects of the fashion world. Before, many consumers were not aware of the detriments in the fashion industry supply chain and the negative externalities of fast fashion. Fashion Revolution gave consumers a platform to ask about where their clothes came from and brought about a conscious effort to make a difference in the industry. Social media has also had an important role in this movement because it has allowed brands and companies to directly interact with their consumers. By responding with #IMadeYourClothes, brands can show consumers that they are passionate about the issue and want to provide transparency. In addition, the growth was very organic and founders Castro and Somers were unaware of how much the movement would catch and attract attention. What was first was a campaign to raise awareness ended up being a social media movement. As the movement online continued to grow, Fashion Revolution was able to increase their offline presence as well by pairing up with policymakers, partnerships, and student ambassadors to continue to spread awareness. 

Offline Presence

Fashion Revolution has taken its strong online presence and turned to events and partnerships to expand its mission of awareness. As mentioned before, they are present offline in many categories including partnerships, student ambassadors and partnering with policymakers.

Partnerships and Events

One partnership that Fashion Revolution took part in was Earth Day in 2019. They partnered with Extinction Rebellion to highlight fashion’s place in the climate emergency ( Global Fashion Exchange, World Economic Forum). Fashion Revolution has over 500 global partnerships, 300 of them with NGOs and activist groups, 200 of them with educational organizations. Another partnership fashion revolution has done in the past is with Global Fashion Exchange. GFX and Fashion Revolution partnered with each other to produce a Global Swap event where consumers came and swapped their old clothes with others. The point of this event was to start a discussion on how consumers can change their habits by reevaluating the way they shop. In this event they were able to spread the knowledge on how increasing a clothes life by 9 months can actually lead to a reduction of 20-30% in carbon footprint.[50] Fashion Revolution has been able to host around 1000 events in the time they have started until now in order to spread their awareness.

Impact of the Movement

Policy Achievements

Since the start of Fashion Revolution, they have worked to fight for regulations that support the movement through the political sphere. Fashion Revolution has continuously partnered with government officials and committees as well as other nonprofit organizations to make an impact to fight for sustainable initiatives and systemic changes in the global fashion industry. 

Reinforcing the UK Modern Slavery Act of 2015 was one of the biggest impacts they contributed to. In 2015, the UK Parliament passed the Modern Slavery Act, requiring big brands to explain what they were doing to tackle modern slavery within their supply chain.[51] While Fashion Revolution positively impacted this legislation, the Act did not create a central registry list to keep these brands accountable. However, in 2019, Fashion Revolution, in partnership with Traidcraft, asked the public to sign a petition to urge the UK government to do more than pass the 2015 Act. In response, the government compiled a commitment to launch an online registry that shows which companies are compliant with the law. 

In February 2019, the UK Government’s Environmental Audit Committee released Fixing Fashion, a report highlighting evidence from global fashion retailers, supply chain experts, and environmental leaders on what the sustainability climate of the UK fashion industry looked like. Based on the evidence, The Committee urged the government to take action on the recommendations given from the report to help with the known social and environmental abuses happening because of the production, purchasing, and disposal of clothing. While the UK government’s ministers rejected all of the recommendations due to their desire to keep existing voluntary non-regulatory approaches, Fashion Revolution continues to work with the Environment Audit Committee to lobby for the reconsideration of the Government’s decision. 

Other Achievements

The impact of the Fashion Revolution movement was not only within the political sphere or through policy reform. General awareness from the public about this movement, especially through social media, has grown significantly. To mark the 5th anniversary of Rana Plaza, Fashion Revolution created a campaign video in 2018 for #WhoMadeMyClothes.[52] The campaign video gained popularity globally, reaching more than 850,000 views and was a key approach to spreading awareness about the movement. During the annual Fashion Revolution week in 2018, the organization hit record numbers in terms of their reach. The movement reached 35% more individuals than the previous year in their social media presence and outreach. The hashtags, such as #WhoMadeMyClothes, used during the week of the Fashion Revolution movement, mobilized the reach from 150 million people in 2017 to 275 million in 2018 worldwide. 

The significant increase in general awareness further incentivized global fashion brands to increase their transparency as a brand. In the 2018 Transparency Index, it was revealed that many of the global fashion brands only disclose little information on the workers within their supply chains. The Index provided an opportunity for these global fashion companies to change and even justify what exactly was happening within their supply chain. As of June 2018, about 172 brands across 68 countries began to reveal more information. In response to the hashtag, #WhoMadeMyClothes, more than 3,838 global brands also took to social media to respond with real information about their suppliers and workers. 

Critiques of the Movement

Some brands are criticizing the methodology Fashion Revolution used to create the Transparency Index, an essential document of information that provides much of the leverage to get global brands to work with the cause.[53] They indicate that it is built on showing more of a brand’s communication policies rather than their social and environmental responsibilities. 

Fashion Revolution’s co-founder Orsola de Castro responded to their criticism by indicating that the Index created does measure each brand’s communication with consumers about their supply chain. However, she also states that part of a brand’s obligations and responsibilities is their communication with consumers, especially on informing them how the product they purchase is made. De Castro admits that the Transparency Index is not perfect, but that if brands have good relationships with who they work with, it should be something that is shared and celebrated with Fashion Revolution.

Conclusion

The Fashion Revolution movement is still making an impact through the use of #WhoMadeMyClothes annually. The nonprofit organization behind the movement has a global network with volunteers all over the world, especially in the fashion industry, who spread awareness whether it is creating hashtag activism on social media, developing partnerships to create strategies for change, or building reports such as the Transparency Index. This movement continues to fight through three central areas. First, it is building over 500 partnerships that help build case studies on how and why the movement is important. Second, the movement continues to collaborate with 112 participating policymakers that actively advocate for Fashion Revolution in governmental space. Lastly, one of the biggest components of the movement is hosting the Annual Fashion Revolution week each April to boost awareness and increase people’s participation each year.

Author Biographies

Lindsay Timmerman | ltimmerman@berkeley.edu | www.linkedin.com/in/lindsay-timmerman 

Lindsay is a third-year UC Berkeley student majoring in Business Administration and Economics. She is passionate about reducing economic inequality with a long-term career goal of increasing educational access for young girls in developing countries. When she’s not studying, you’ll find her in a yoga class or exploring the Bay Area.

Winnie Zhou | winnie.zhou@berkeley.edu | https://www.linkedin.com/in/winnie-zhou 

Winnie is a fourth-year UC Berkeley student studying Media Studies (Mass Communications) and Public Policy. She is passionate about environmental sustainability with a long-term future goal to work in corporate social responsibility. When she’s not working or studying, you can find her on traveling and eating adventures around the Bay Area and across the globe. 

Stanford Anwar | stanford15_@berkeley.edu | www.linkedin.com/in/stanford-multi-anwar/

Stanford is a third-year UC Berkeley student studying Business Administration and Data Science. He is passionate about the intersection between technology and business and how business can be utilized as a channel to impact society. When he’s not studying, you will find him playing badminton or exploring foods across the Bay Area. 

Malika Mirbagheri| malikamirbagheri@berkeley.edu|www.linkedin.com/in/malikamirbagheri/

Malika is a third-year UC Berkeley student studying Business Administration. Her passions include Marketing, Data Analytics, and Fashion. She is also passionate about the sustainability movement behind fashion industries and how the future is changing. Malika’s dream job would include working for a media or fashion company in Marketing Analytics. When she is not studying she is watching fashion and makeup videos on YouTube or filming TikToks.

Sources

[1] Yardley, Jim. “Report on Deadly Factory Collapse in Bangladesh Finds Widespread Blame.” The New York Times, 23 May 2013, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. www.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/world/asia/report-on-bangladesh-building-collapse-finds-widespread-blame.html.

[2] ibid.

[3] Omotoso, Moni. “‘Who Made My Clothes’ Movement – How it All Began.” Fashion Insiders, 5 Dec. 2018, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. fashioninsiders.co/features/inspiration/who-made-my-clothes-movement/.

[4] Egenhoefer, Rachel Beth. Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Design. Routledge, 2017.

[5] Blanchard, Tamsin. “Fashion Revolution Week: Seven Ways to Get Involved.” The Guardian, Guardian News, 24 Apr. 2018, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. www.theguardian.com/fashion/2018/apr/24/fashion-revolution-week-seven-ways-to-get-involved.

[6] Omotoso, Moni. “‘Who Made My Clothes’ Movement – How it All Began.” Fashion Insiders, 5 Dec. 2018, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. fashioninsiders.co/features/inspiration/who-made-my-clothes-movement/.

[7] “Results for: #whomademyclothes.” Hashtagify, Accessed 14 Apr. 2020. hashtagify.me/hashtag/whomademyclothes.

[8] ibid.

[9] ibid.

[10] ibid.

[11] “Bangladesh Exports By Category.” Trading Economics, 2019, tradingeconomics.com/bangladesh/exports-by-category.

[12] ibid.

[13] “Home.” Fashion Revolutionwww.fashionrevolution.org/.

[14] Emma. “Https://Www.milouandpilou.com/i-Made-Your-Clothes/.” Milou & Pilou, Milou & Pilou, 4 May 2018, www.milouandpilou.com/i-made-your-clothes/.

[15] Yardley, Jim. “Report on Deadly Factory Collapse in Bangladesh Finds Widespread Blame.” The New York Times, 23 May 2013, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. www.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/world/asia/report-on-bangladesh-building-collapse-finds-widespread-blame.html.

[16] ibid.

[17] “Berliner Game Changer for More Sustainability in the Fashion Industry.” Berliner Game Changer for More Sustainability in the Fash | Berlin Fashion Week, 13 Sept. 2019, fashion-week-berlin.com/en/blog/single-news/berliner-game-changer-for-more-sustainability-in-the-fashion-industry.html.

[18] ibid.

[19] 2018, 4 July. “My Fashion Life: Carry Somers, Co-Founder of Fashion Revolution.” Draperswww.drapersonline.com/people/my-fashion-life/my-fashion-life-carry-somers-co-founder-of-fashion-revolution/7030877.article.

[20] ibid.

[21] “Fashion Revolution: All We Should Know, by Orsola De Castro – Luxiders.” Sustainable Fashion – Eco Design – Healthy Lifestyle – Luxiders Magazine, 31 Jan. 2018, luxiders.com/fashion-revolution-orsola-de-castro/.

[22] ibid.

[23] Watson, Emma. “I’m Remembering #RanaPlaza Today, Four Years on… Please Consider #WhomademyclothesT.co/KtIgR86qEc.” Twitter, Twitter, 24 Apr. 2017, twitter.com/EmmaWatson/status/856612150357499905.

[24] “ABOUT.” Fashion Revolutionwww.fashionrevolution.org/about/.

[25] ibid.

[26] ibid.

[27] Blanchard, Tamsin. “Who Made My Clothes? Stand up for Workers’ Rights with Fashion Revolution Week | Tamsin Blanchard.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Apr. 2019, www.theguardian.com/fashion/commentisfree/2019/apr/22/who-made-my-clothes-stand-up-for-workers-rights-with-fashion-revolution-week.

[28] “Who We Are.” IndustriALL, 21 June 2019, www.industriall-union.org/who-we-are.

[29] ibid.

[30] “More than 100 Brands Sign 2018 Transition Accord in Bangladesh.” IndustriALL, 14 Feb. 2018, www.industriall-union.org/more-than-100-brands-sign-2018-transition-accord-in-bangladesh.

[31] ibid.

[32] “Mission and Impact of the ILO.” Mission and Impact of Thewww.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/mission-and-objectives/lang–en/index.htm.

[33] ibid.

[34] @ilo (International Labour Organization).”The ILO has been asking #WhoMadeMyClothes since 1919! Find out more: http://bit.ly/2CQkPr8 #ILO100“. Twitter, February 11 2019, 6:00 a.m., https://twitter.com/ilo/status/1094959316354977799.

[35] “The 2 Euro T-Shirt – A Social Experiment.” YouTube, 23 Apr. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfANs2y_frk&feature=emb_logo.

[36] “The consumer can make a difference.” Fashion Revolution, https://www.fashionrevolution.org/the-consumer-can-make-a-difference/

[37] “2018 Impact.” Fashion Revolution, https://www.fashionrevolution.org/2018-impact/

[38] Omotoso, Moni. “‘Who Made My Clothes’ Movement – How it All Began.” Fashion Insiders, 5 Dec. 2018, Accessed 4 Mar. 2020. fashioninsiders.co/features/inspiration/who-made-my-clothes-movement/.

[39] “2018 Impact.” Fashion Revolutionwww.fashionrevolution.org/2018-impact/.

[40] ibid.

[41] “Get Involved.” Fashion Revolution, https://www.fashionrevolution.org/about/get-involved/

[42] @Fash_Rev (Fashion Revolution).”Download an ‘I made your clothes’ poster here: http://ow.ly/10DfBF“. Twitter, April 14 2016, 3:01 a.m., https://twitter.com/Fash_Rev/status/720552497463566336

[43]“HUGE 70’s Thrift Haul! 🌈 Designer Brands, PRADA & more #haulternative.” YouTube, 21 Mar. 2018,

youtu.be/e7n9Plg3HQ8.

[44] @WeeMissBea. “This is a beautiful video. My big bugbear is “Feminist” tshirts where the women who made them have not be treated fairly. Ask & look into #WhoMadeMyClothes Clothing is an industry we drive with our cash & we can not buy things if they are not made fairly. #FashionRevolutionWeekTwitter, April 26 2018, 2:27 a.m., https://twitter.com/WeeMissBea/status/989435861124177920

[45] “Wear your clothes inside out for Fashion Revolution Day.” The Guardian, www.theguardian.com/fashion/gallery/2015/apr/24/wear-your-clothes-inside-out-fashion-revolution-day.

[46] “#Insideout – Six Months On.” Fashion Revolution, Fashion Revolution, 2015, www.fashionrevolution.org/uk-blog/insideout-six-months-on/.

[47] FashionRevolution. Twitter, Twitter, 23 Jan. 2020, twitter.com/Fash_Rev/status/1220339545234907136.

[48] FashionRevolution. “This #FashionRevolution Week, from the 20th to the 26th of April 2020, We’re Joining Forces with @GFX_change to Make the Largest Swap in History and We Need Your Help to Do It. Register Your Interest and Stay up to Date! #ClothesSwap #LovedClothesLastT.co/l9cZfzVcb6 Pic.twitter.com/jTtF86rJRs.” Twitter, Twitter, 6 Dec. 2019, twitter.com/Fash_Rev/status/1202958649217433605.

[49] Person, and ProfilePage. “Fashion Revolution on Instagram: ‘The New Year Often Brings about Reflection, Goal Setting, and a Figurative Clean Slate. But When Marketing Messages Get Ahold of That…”.” Instagram, www.instagram.com/p/B60IF9YhUDl/?igshid=lsmshwduiixa.

[50]“Global Swap with Fashion Revolution 2019.” Fashion Revolution, www.fashionrevolution.org/global-swap-with-fashion-revolution-2019/.

[51] Fashion Revolution. “Fashion Revolution Impact Report 2019.” Issuu, 3 Oct. 2019, issuu.com/fashionrevolution/docs/fashionrevolution_impactreport_2019_highres.

[52] “2018 Impact.” Fashion Revolution, www.fashionrevolution.org/2018-impact/.

[53] Theodosi, Natalie. “Fashion Revolution Responds to Criticism From Brands on Its Transparency Index.” WWD, Penske Media Corporation, 29 Apr. 2016, wwd.com/fashion-news/fashion-scoops/fashion-revolution-criticism-transparency-index-chanel-fendi-sustainability-10421031/.

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